Warre Bee keeping

A little over a year ago, we got together with a group of friends and constructed our first Warre Bee Hive. It was an interesting exercise in communication with Electrical Engineers, IT specialists, Project Managers and noisy children thrown in for fun. It was an awesome day where some creating swear words were unearthed and curious children learnt how to apply wood glue without sticking things to themselves.

Last night, we got a message from a friend saying that they had a swarm in their front garden … Awesome! was our first reaction. “Can we come over and collect it?” was our second.

With a maniacal giggle upon hearing “Yeah sure, come on over.”, we started prepping our hive.

Wild bee swarm, swarming in Christmas Bush shrub.
Wild bee swarm, swarming in Christmas Bush shrub.

We pulled apart all our boxes and re-waxed our frames, re-stuffed the mattress and checked that all the potential wasp entrances were secured.

Packing the mattress of a Warre Bee Hive using saw dust.
Packing the mattress of a Warre Bee Hive using saw dust.

We were finalising the net we were going to drape over the Christmas Bush, when we got the sad news that the swarm had moved on. ūüė¶

Oh well … till the next time we get informed about a swarm. But since we had the hive apart, we decided to give it a nice new coat of paint. At least it will weather a few more seasons now.

Warre bee hive drying after applying new coat of paint.
Warre bee hive drying after applying new coat of paint. And yes, the kids thought that blue frames would make all the difference to bees looking for a new home – because decor is important! LOL!

Got a swarm you want to re-home? Let us know and we should be able to help if we are nearby.

Figs and memories

Very few things excite us more than the harvest of fruit from our trees. Most people don’t realise the amount of care and attention a tree needs before it can bear fruit … let alone fruit of sufficient quality that can be sold to market!

Most trees require years of growth before they fruit. Apples, pears, peaches … all take 3 years or more to produce fruit. But then some, like the humble fig, can start producing from as young as 2 years of age.

We grow¬†four varieties of fig here; Black Genova, White Genova, White Adriatic … and a special fig from our grandparents farm in Sicily. These little trees (for some of them are only in their second season) have come into their own with the awesome weather we have been having this year.¬†Figs produce two harvest each year: One in February and then another in April. This year the harvest is shaping up to be brilliant.

As children, we couldn’t wait for the figs to ripen and be ready to eat … many times being told off for squeezing the fruit too hard and bruising it. But our little monkeys are now doing the same thing we did … and why? Because they are simply copying us … every morning, when we go out to check the ripeness of the fruit. We¬†know which ones to gently touch to determine if it is ready today or if it needs to wait until tomorrow … because a day can make a huge difference in flavour! It is humbling teaching our children the the correct technique and they learn so fast!

So here’s a shout out to all the amazing people who had the courage to leave their homes overseas, brought their culture with them and truly believed that they were doing the best for their families. For us, the humble fig represents that move; bring on the fig jam, dried figs and fig cookies this season.

Fig bowl

Cider Season … It’s here and we’ve started processing!

There are two things we¬†are seriously passionate about … chickens and apples.

Now while I could talk¬†about either topic for hours,¬†today was all about the amazing bounty of fresh Summer apples … and turning those little gems into cider!

There are plenty of online sites¬†out there that describe the ins-and-outs of making cider. So we won’t do that, rather, lets see how we go about making our cider. Here is a rough summary…

  1. Collect apples
  2. Clean apples
  3. Cut and juice apples
  4. Pasteurise the juice
  5. Clean and dry the vat
  6. Mix in the yeast
  7. Ferment (stage 1)
  8. Siphon and bottle
  9. Ferment (stage 2)
  10. Drink and enjoy!

Collect apples

There are a lot of different aspects you need to consider when choosing apples for cider. For us, we use a juicy fruit which has a nice crisp flavour but not too sweet. We have visited hundreds of feral apple trees and found some favourites. The fruit from this tree is no exception. It is a small tree, standing only 3.5-4m tall with an upright habit, but every year, it is laden with so much fruit that the branches are always bent under the weight of them. The fruit with a red blush was on the outer branches, exposed to sunlight, whereas the green ones were well covered with leaves and did not receive any direct light.

This year, we collected around 30kg from this one tree. Not bad for a freebie!

Clean apples

We always give our apples a good wash before juicing them. We fill a tub with water and add around one cup of vinegar. When we put the apples in, we remove any leaves and ensure that there are no seriously damaged fruit. This little tree has never had any fruit fly or codling moth in all the years we have visited it. We can only dream of having such luck on our new farm! *sigh*

Cut and juice apples

To make sure that there are no wriggling surprises in the apples, we slice them through once. After going through around 10kg of the apples, there was not a single insect larvae found! So we stopped that and just juiced¬†the whole fruit for the last 20kg. We use a regular juicer, which means that there is a foam created on top of the extracted juice due to the aeration produced by the¬†spinning juicing disk. You can use a pressure juicer if you want, and this won’t produce the foam like ours.

 

Some common fruit problems.

Apples, like all fruit, are not always perfect straight from the tree. When fruit growers harvest their own fruit, they have to grade them. The best fruit is sold as fresh edible produce and the rest are either fed to animals or juiced. As we harvested our fruit from a feral tree, the only care taker was Mother Nature … and while She can create some amazing things, Her idea of pretty is not the same as ours. Here are a couple of ailments you might find on feral fruit…

Bird or Fruit Bat Damage

Feral apples are a great food source for wild animals. Even in managed fruit crops, orchard growers need to ensure that their fruit is protected from all sorts of critters and insects alike. In our up-coming orchard, we need to contend with protecting our crop from rabbits, wombats, kangaroos, fruit bats, possums, fruit fly, coddling moth and birds (especially cockatoos) to name the worst offenders. It’s a delicate balance. But fruit that has been attacked by animals is still salvageable for cider as long as the fruit flesh has not been damaged. Simply cut off the affected area and juice away. The following images are examples of bird damage (note the pitting) and ¬†of fruit bat damage (note the smooth scrapped sections) respectively.

Fungus and bruising

Some fungus is only skin deep. This particular fungus is a dry rot. It sets in under specific conditions and creates small indentations in the skin of the affected fruit, covered with a dark scab like substance. Although it looks horrible, this is a purely an aesthetic issue. When you cut through the flesh, only the bruising affects anything below the skin. You can remove these parts of the apple, but as we pasteurise our juice, we leave it on.

Scab and bruising

One the fruit below, you can see a bump with a scabby section on it. This is a form of apple scab, a fungus that again affects the skin of fruit under certain conditions. You can also see bruising under the skin from when we picked the fruit (we were not delicate in the process and had some throwing competitions at some points … great memories but not too good for the fruit!). In the second image, you can see how, on cutting the apple directly through¬†the scab, there is no imperfection in the flesh except the bruising.

 

Pasteurise the juice

Once the juice is in the pot, we move the pot to a stove and bring it to the boil for several minutes. This ensures that the correct temperature is reached to kill off any bacteria from the apples. While you can simply use unpasteurised juice, we are aiming for a consistent flavour. That and the fact that the fruit came from a feral tree on the roadside of a major highway means that we would rather be safe than sorry!

Once the juice has been pasteurised, we skim off the frothy layer and let it cool a bit. The froth will float to the surface and congeal as it cools (apples are high in pectin, which is used as a jam setting agent). Once it has congealed, it is easy to skim off the top with a ladle.

Clean and dry the vat

While the juice is cooling, we clean out the fermenting vat and sterilise it. We are using a 30L vat available from your local brewers shop. We then pour the juice in and wait for it to cool. We supplemented our juice with that from our local orchard, Cedar Creek Orchard, who do amazing apple juice from their trees.

Mix in the yeast

Once the temperature has dropped down, we add the least. We are using a champagne yeast, 10g to the whole vat. This is enough to kick start the fermentation process. Simply add the yeast to the warm juice, stir it through, seal it with a lid and airlock, then let it do its thing for a few weeks.

Ferment (stage 1)

Fermenting is the process of converting the sugars in the juice using microbial activity into either an acid a gas and/or alcohol. There are lots of natural yeasts but we find that using a specific strain is best to ensure you get consistent results. During the fermentation process, the vat will give off lots and lots of gas. We need to monitor the airlock regularly to ensure that there is enough fluid in the S-bend to ensure that no oxygen gets into the vat.

This stage of the fermentation cycle is always good for laughs as, when all is quite in our house, there are random gurgles and bubbles heard from the air lock of the cider vat. We keep the vat in our laundry where the temperature is the most stable and it is well ventilated too. We managed to get a photo of some gas escaping. You can just see it in the image below on the right hand side of the S-bend in the air lock.

Siphon and bottle

(to be updated in late February)

Ferment (stage 2)

(to be updated in March)

Drink and enjoy!

(to be updated in March)

 

 

How do you know your eggs are fresh?

Not all eggs are equal. The nutritional value of an egg is very different based on the diet of the bird that they come from. The size of an egg differs based on both the age and the breed of the chicken that laid it. Plus the freshness of the egg is dependant on how long ago it was laid.

Lets start with egg size…

I’ve touched on this in an earlier post (https://littlefieldmice.com.au/blogs/all-things-chicken/18495555-eggs-are-truly-amazing). The first eggs that a bird lays are called “pullet eggs”. They are smaller than “normal” and are more yolk than white to begin with. Here is a size comparison for you against a 50c piece…

The light blue egg is a pullet egg from our Araucana breed. In a few weeks time, she will be laying eggs similar in size to the buff coloured egg in the middle. The blue egg only weighs 35g. It is still perfectly good to eat but if you are using it in a recipe, you would need to use 2 of this size to make up a “standard” egg size.

The buff coloured egg was laid by one of our smaller Plymouth Rock girls. The larger the bird generally the larger the egg. This egg weighs 50 grams.

The brown egg is a “normal” supermarket weight at 61 grams. It was laid by one of our Barnevelder girls.

But what about egg colour? …

I’m not concerned here about egg shell colour. The colour of the shell is strictly based on the breed of the bird. I am more concerned about the colour of the yolk.

Generally, store bought eggs have a yellow yolk and a slightly cloudy white. To us, this is an indication of a poorly cared for bird. A yolk should be almost orange in colour, indicating that the bird had access to excellent feed. This could be in the form of a balanced grain diet, access to pasture and/or vegetable matter or even access to foraged protein such as insects.

Believe it or not, but chickens are NOT vegetarian. Given the choice between¬†insects and¬†grain, chickens will take insects any day! Slugs, crickets, caterpillars, moths, mice … anything that is not quick enough to get past the quick dart of a chickens’ head is immediately dinner. It is amazing to watch a chicken corner a mouse … they are quicker than cats once they have a taste for the little critters.

Finally, freshness…

Those of you who poach eggs, may notice that some eggs simply fall apart when you poach them directly into boiling water. This is because the¬†egg is older than 7 days from being laid. The internal membrane that protects¬†any potential embryo in fertile eggs, is present in normal store bought eggs. This membrane breaks down and stops the egg being able to “stick together” when poached.

You can also check how fresh an egg is by submerging it in water. Inside each egg is an air sac. As the egg gets older, the air sack gets bigger as the yolk and egg white shrink as they deteriorate.¬†When submerged, a fresh egg will lay down flat on its side. If an egg starts to lift up and stand on one end, it is still edible but not very fresh. NEVER try to eat an egg that floats. The air sac in a floating egg is essentially filled with “rotten egg gas” … get rid of it!

Creating your own home made sultanas is easier than you think.

As a child, I used to always get confused between the difference of raisins and sultanas. They are essentially made form the same fruit (white grapes) but it is the process that changes the end result.

There is always conjecture around what makes the difference between a raisin and a sultana.¬†The answer really depends on where you come from.¬†I was taught that sultanas are made from seedless grapes and raisins made from non-seedless varieties and take longer to dry out. I’m not going to argue the naming convention differences in this post but I am going to show you how to create these tasty morsels at home, with little more than what you find in your own kitchen.

From the middle of Summer, grapes are abundant and cheep as they are in peak season. This is the best time to buy them. They are sweet and delicious. But we always tend to have a few bunches too many. When this happens, we dry them out. You can use a dehydrator, but with Sydney Summer weather being what it is, we sun dry ours. The method is quite simple…

Tools needed: Grapes (obviously), sharp knife, plate or platter, netted food cover, insect surface spray (optional).

Method:

1) Clean your grapes and let them dry. We fill a small tub or sink then add a splash of vinegar to the water before submerging the grapes for 10 mins. Vinegar acts as a fungicide, killing off those nasty moulds.

2) Pick your grapes off the vine

3) Cut each grape in half. If you are using a seeded variety, you can remove the seeds at this point too.

4) Arrange the grapes fleshy side up on a plate or platter. Ensure that they are closely packed but not stacked on each other. The grapes will shrink when drying to about a third of their original size.

5) Find a sunny position and if you have ants nearby, spray a small area with surface spray. Place the plate/platter on the sprayed surface then put the netted food cover over the plate/platter. The net is to ensure that no insects can access the fruit while drying and the surface spray stops crawling insects from accessing under the netting. Keep an eye on the plate/platter throughout the day and move it if it gets shaded.

On a 35 degree day, it should take about one to one and a half days to dry out the grapes. Longer if it is colder.

You can also use a dehydrator, but why use electricity when the sun can do the work for you!

Enjoy your sultanas!

Making tomato sauce … the italian way!

There are several¬†things that scream “Italian Heritage” loud and clear. One of those things is “Tomato Sauce Day”.

For the un-initiated, this is essentially the act of turning many kilos of glorious, sun ripened summer tomatoes into a paste, bottling them then preserving them.

This is normally a family affair, and most families do this at the peak of the tomato season. It takes a full day and becomes a crazy day of story telling, kids running rampant and more food than you can eat. Our last “Sauce Day” was a low key affair with just myself, my parents and my mother-in-law. We churned through around 350kg of tomatoes in one day. It was epic!

Anyone can do this at home, but you will need a few things. Most of these will be things you already have in the kitchen. Here is a short rundown of equipment…

  • Tomatoes (see the section below about “Choosing your tomatoes”
  • a large pot (or two)
  • a large¬†sieve/colander
  • bottles and bottle tops (see the section below about “Collecting bottles”
  • a bottle capping machine
  • olive oil
  • rags (to protect the bottles while preserving)
  • basil or parsley (optional)
  • a¬†mouille/vegetable grinder
  • funnel
  • bottle brush, cleaning sponge, detergent and nail brush (optional)

Any family who does their version of “Sauce Day” does so no more than once per year. Some families share equipment, ensuring that they do not plan on doing things on the same weekend, and other families store¬†their equipment in the back of their garage or shed until needed. Either way, they equipment need not be expensive in the least. Start small if you want to try this. Each year, we only pay for bottle tops, a few extra boxes of tomatoes and gas for the gas burner. Everything else is our¬†time (and experience of course).

When we get a large crop of tomatoes in our “pantry” garden, then we do a small, single pot of sauce. Here is a pic of all the ingredients for that .. the colours are a real symbol of Summer for us.

Choosing your tomatoes for “Sauce Day”

There is an art to choosing tomatoes for sauce. They key factors are time of year, fruit type and fruit quality.

You want to use a fruit that is at its peak of sweetness, has lots of flavour but not much in the way of seed pulp. The classic Roma or egg shaped tomato is perfect. Many of your round tomatoes have a very high seed to flesh ratio. You want to make sure that the tomato you use is as close to being seed free as possible. We use the Apollo variety of egg tomato. It is a commercially grown variety that resembles the classic Roma (which is its parent actually) but is larger and matures quicker.

The flavour of tomatoes changes throughout the season. Tomatoes that you get in store always taste the same because they are probably grown in a poly tunnel (plastic green house). Poly tunnels are great for reducing pest infestation and controlling the climate for seasonal crops. But ¬†find that¬†the flavour of a sun ripened fruit is superior to one grown in a poly tunnel. The best tomatoes used for sauce are those that are at the top of the plant¬†(nearing the end of the season) and grown outside of a poly tunnel. This is because the plant is well established and the fruit is exposed to sunlight through it’s entire growing period. Tomatoes grown in this way are amazing in flavour … sometimes a little sun burnt (especially during hot summers when >40 degrees C is reached on consecutive days) … but the flavour of the flesh is unaffected.

If you have a grower near by, you can approach them and ask if they grow Roma style tomatoes and ask them when they think the top crop will be ready. This is usually around the end of January in Sydney regions. This is perfect because you can turn your Australia Day celebration break into a “Sauce Day” family gathering! ūüėČ

Most growers are happy to sell direct to the public because that way they don’t have to take their produce to market. Some growers though do have existing clients and quotas to fill, but they will be able to let you know how much they will have available and at what times. For reference, a large box of tomatoes is around 15kg.

Collecting bottles

Making sure that you have enough bottles for preserving your tomato sauce is necessary to ensure that your hard work does not go to waste. You can use any preserving bottles or even good old beer bottles (750mL bottles have a long narrow neck where as 500mL have a short narrow neck, making it easier to get the preserved sauce out).

If you don’t regularly collect bottles, you can approach your local pub or club. Talk to one of the bar managers and ask them to collect any 500mL bottles for you. It is best that bottles with a pop-top cap are collected¬†rather than twist top caps. Most bars are happy to collect them as they won’t need to pay for disposal of the glass. Win-win!

If you have organised for a collection, make sure you pick them up promptly, otherwise other staff members may not realise that they are for you and send them off for recycling.

Prep work for “Sauce Day”

There are several tasks that need to be done before starting. The most time consuming is cleaning your bottles.

Ensure that, at the latest, you have all your bottles washed and dried the day before. Good hygiene is paramount when it comes to preserving your own produce. Regardless of how our bottles have been stored during the year, we always wash ours the day before. In the two decades or so that we have been preserving our own tomato sauce, we have not had to throw away contaminated bottles of sauce. Some bottles have been in storage for 4 years, with no degradation. So when you get it right, it feels fantastic and lasts for years.

Another task is ensuring that your tomatoes are clean and sorted. This can be done in the early morning beforehand or the night before. The fruit needs to be rinsed in water. We also add around a cup of vinegar to each tub of water. Vinegar is perfect for killing fungus which thrives on moist fruit, like tomatoes. When you clean your tomatoes, some will be a bit squashed or their skin split. Avoid using these ones as they will not taste right.

If you intend to do all your work outdoors … because it is a messy job … then make sure you have a place to cook the tomatoes. We have a large gas burner for this purpose. It is a good idea to check that you have enough gas so you don’t run out!

Making tomato sauce

There are a few steps in making tomato sauce. In summary, they are:

Step 1: Boil the tomatoes whole

Some families don’t do this step. We like to as we feel it kills off bacteria before bottling and also reduces the time taken to bring the Preserving step to the boil.

Essentially, you fill a large pot with whole tomatoes then fill it with water. If you are using a large pot, it is best to place the pot on the burner, then fill it with tomatoes and water in situ. That way you don’t have to lift the heavy pot and hurt your back.

Bring the pot to the boil and leave to boil for 5 minutes.

Step 2: Drain the cooked tomatoes

Once the tomatoes have cooked for a few minutes, you will need to drain them of as much water as possible. You want to ensure that there is only pulp left. Pour the cooked tomatoes into a large colander and using a spatula or spoon, gently fold the tomatoes around in the colander to remove excess liquid.

When the bulk of the water has been removed, leave it to stand for about 10 minutes before folding the tomatoes again and removing even more liquid. Any liquid from the second fold is seriously tomato flavoured. If you are frugal (like we are), this is the perfect time to capture some tomato flavoured water to start a risotto or some pasta cooking for lunch!

Step 3: Mince the cooked tomatoes

The drained tomatoes now need to be minced. There are some pretty serious mincing machines out there. The one pictured above is driven by an electric motor, but you can also use a mouille (see below).

When we mince our tomatoes, we also add at this point a few handfuls of herbs; mainly basil and/or parsley. When added during the mincing process, the flavour is infused throughout the entire sauce and you don’t need to add any herbs when cooking. Some families also add salt at this point but we tend not to as the amount of salt you use in a dish when cooking is variable.

Step 4: Bottle the cooked tomatoes

Once enough tomatoes have been pureed into a paste, it is time for bottling.

Using a funnel in the top of a bottle, scoop in the paste. Ensure that the funnel does not have a seal around the bottle lip as this will stop the sauce from flowing in smoothly. You may need to encourage the sauce in if it is very thick. A skewer or the handle of some cutlery usually does the trick.

Once the bottle is filled to around 4cm from the top, add a round 1-2cm of olive oil to the top of the bottle. This will help preserve the sauce in storage by preventing oxygen from reacting with the sauce.

Next, you will need to cap the bottles. There are many different ways to do this and simple machines you can use also. The cap needs to seal the bottle completely.

Step 5: Preserve the bottled tomatoes

Now comes the fun part … boiling the bottled sauce. You will need to boil your bottles in a large pot for around 2-3 hours. The base of the pot needs to be lined with old rags before you pack your bottles in, this will ensure that the heat from the cooking element will not heat the bottles at the bottom too much. We wrap our bottles in old socks (sexy I know!) to stop them from rattling against each other when being boiled. Also, we wedge other rags between bottles for the same reason.

Once all the bottles of sauce have been cooked, store them in a dark and cool place. They should be provide you with some awesome sauce in the years to come!

Hope you have fun at your next “Sauce Day”.

 

Fertile Eggs and Incubation Preparation

Egg Fertility Basics

Most people don’t realise that you need fertile eggs to hatch a chick.

Eggs are laid by female chickens. You need a rooster (male chicken) with your hens to be able to hatch your own eggs. And to ensure you have a high fertility rate, it is best to have one rooster for every 3-8 hens. The best ratio I have found is having 2 roosters covering ten to twelve hens.

Diet is also important. You need to ensure that your flock has a well balanced diet and has plenty of water. Any stress to your chickens will result in poor quality eggs and low fertility rates. Regular layer pellets provide a good balanced diet. But chickens LOVE scraps and fresh leaves. So anything from your table that you don’t eat (this includes small cuts of meat too) are perfect for chickens. Any weeds you pull from your garden are also excellent supplements for your flock, especially all the slugs and snails!

Chickens do not lay eggs all year round. They have a “break” over the winter months and stop laying daily. When daylight hours start to lengthen (after June 22nd in the Southern Hemisphere), chickens begin to lay more eggs again. The last month of winter is considered by most to be the start of the breeding season for chickens. The eggs laid during the last month of Winter and through Spring are the best used for hatching.

Here is an image of some of our Plymouth Rock flock chowing down on some scattered feed and fresh leaves.

Checking Fertility

A fertile egg is one that has a sperm bundle with it. If you grow your own chickens and use their eggs, you will notice this as an extra yellowish bundle attached to the egg yolk when it is cracked open.

You cannot check for fertility immediately after laying. This is especially true for eggs that have a thick shell or dark colour. The best time to check for fertility is around 5 days after incubating starts. This is done using a technique called candling. Essentially, you shine a bright light through an egg to determine if the embryo has started to develop. A developing embryo is one where you can clearly identify blood vessels traversing through the egg white from the embryo (egg yolk). Any egg that is not fertile needs to be discarded. Nothing smells worse than a rotten egg exploding in an incubator. Blech!

Collecting eggs for incubation

Eggs that you collect for incubating need to be treated a little differently to those you use in the kitchen. Here is a list of pointers…

Do not wash your eggs
A chicken has only one “out hole” … for everything! (Yes, this means that every egg laid comes out of the same place where its’ excrement come from.) This is why eggs used in the kitchen need to be washed to ensure that pests and diseases are not transferred to us. But when you are collecting eggs for incubation, do not wash them. If the eggs are particularly dirty, you can scrape it off or quickly wash it under running water.
There is a thin membrane on the outside of every egg which protects the contents of an egg from pathogens. Washing your egg will break and/or remove this membrane, leading to a greater potential of infection to a developing chick.
Use your cleanest eggs
Egg shells are porous. It is through the small holes in the shell that a developing chick will breath. You get a better hatching rate from clean eggs than from dirty eggs as they are exposed to fewer potential pathogens.
Turn your eggs at least once per day (twice is better)
Store the eggs you collect in an egg carton and mark them with a pencil or thin marker (so no one will eat them!). At least once per day, rotate the egg carton. I find it easiest to remember doing this at breakfast and at dinner.
Rotating your eggs daily ensures that the egg yolk does not stick to the inside of the egg shell. This causes deformity as the chick developed if it occurs.
Use your freshest eggs (unto 7 days old is best. Up to 10 days old can still work)
The freshest eggs develop the best. This is because the embryo deteriorates over time. From 1-7 days, the embryo is at its optimum performance. Between days 7-10, the membrane around the yolk starts to break down. An egg will not start to develop until you start to incubate it.
When you collect your eggs, write the date on them. Just the day is fine (e.g. 22/09/2014 only needs “22” written on it). That way, you will always know how fresh your eggs are.
Keep them at room temperature
To ensure that an embryo does not die before you start to incubate it, keep it at room temperature. You can refrigerate them, but as most fridges internal temperatures vary and a lot of modern fridges are “frost free”, it will kill the embryo before incubation. An egg shell is porous, so fluid will slowly evaporate through the shell quicker in a “frost free” fridge than at room temperature.

 

Check out our other post about incubation for more info on hatching your own chicks.